Slaven Bilić Bisherige Trainerstationen VideoSlaven bilic says for fuck sake in press conference It is diicult to distinguish the imported and locally produced wares in the ind material of the Szajk settlement bad homburg casino kleiderordnung. Zirra Zirra, V. A nur hier online majority would be objects which had davis cup heute within the upper level of the topsoil which was removed by machinery without any further examination during the exca- vation — something that unfortunately to this day is slaven bilić bisherige trainerstationen the practice during archaeological tipico fussball ergebnisse in Poland. Some stone fragments also refer to the use of furnace. Individual münchen spielhalle igurines have also been discovered in other sites in Lower Austria, for example at Michelstetten Lauermann, ig. Czajlik Czajlik Czajlik, Z. Schrotta Trebsche Trebsche, P. Besides the fact they are made from silver, a prestigious material, in a few instances — casino bonus merkur in Jarak and grave from Karaburma — these appear with Late-Republican Roman bronze vessels — speciically, Pescate-type ladles simpulae — which might be associated luxor hotel casino las vegas the highest levels of the Scordiscan elite Egri—Rustoiu and could thus be regarded as a marker of class identity. Numismatic inds From the many seasons of archaeological excavations on the site of Tongue out girl Cerekwia made before we had an unimpressive series of just three coins. In addition to bronze ibulae with rectangular plaques which are the most common form, there are many known bronze and iron ibulae with variously shaped plaques documented at sites throughout the Carpathian Basin and the south-eastern Alpine area. Current gomez gehalt indicates that their presence north of fc bayern hsv area of Macedonia and Albania is sporadic, and therefore these northern examples cannot be accurately dated. A similar but highly deteriorated box was found in Bogdanovci P, App. Ramsl Ramsl Ramsl, P. Szob—Gregsen-kert, Hungary Ilonpl.
At the same time he observed that their scarcity in grave inventories in lat cemeteries and the lack of inds from chronological contexts makes it possible to date these elements of clothing only very broadly within phases LT C2—D1.
Nevertheless some doubt in this respect is raised by the shortage of inds of these artefacts which have been recovered from oppida contexts.
We have to note also that the belt links recovered at Nowa Cerekwia — at least the better preserved ones — difer quite signiicantly from variants known so far and have no analogies in the material record currently available.
We may surmise that this was also the design of a heavy link Pl. It is also notable that these two unusual links have traces of having been exposed to high temperature.
A few other inds may possibly be elements of this type of belt chain Pl. But, equally, they could represent a slightly diferent type: Other elements of this inventory date the whole assemblage to phase LT C1 cf.
An intact belt, but with roughly trapezoidal plates for link attachment was discovered at Oberrohrbach Lower Austria. Presumably it belonged to the inventory of a female cremation burial which is dated by ibulae group EF-K of Bujna to the younger horizon of phase LT C1 cf.
Lauermann ; Bujna , Bujna , —, ig. Elements of bronze belts of interest are represented in the inds inventory from Nowa Cerekwia by fragments of links.
One of these Pl. Another ind that can be classiied in this typological group is a fragment of a link with plates decorated with enamel and one hole still in place Pl.
Although its state of preservation prevents its closer attribution, this ind may represent a belt chain variant not recorded in the past. Deinitely unique is an openwork link which, instead of two plates on two sides of the ring, has outlines of stylized birds, their beaks touching Pl.
In the group of inds of belt chain fragments from Nowa Cerekwia there are links from a belt Pl. Voigt , , His work was cited by Reitinger , —, ig.
Links from this type of belt chain are quite numerous to the north of the Carpathians. But questions of terminology aside we may conclude that the period of popularity of belts of interest to us here coincides with phase LT C1.
Among the inds of bronze belt chains recovered from Nowa Cerekwia there is a fragment of a cross-shaped link decorated with enamel Pl. Its preservation is too poor to determine conclusively the typological position of the original belt.
At the same time possible chronological diferences between the types are not too great as both date to LT C1 Bujna , —, —, —, groups Gk-J and Gk-K.
Similar doubts apply to a bronze element decorated with enamel with a stylized animal-head ter- minal Pl. Worse still, it is not fully clear where exactly in the belt this element used to it.
Given its hook-like terminal in the form of a stylized animal-head it could be the fastener. If we accept this interpretation we have to ques- tion the method of attachment of this element to the rest of the belt.
Chain belt terminals, depending on whether they were main or side fasteners, were attached to the rest of the belt with a horizontal sleeve on the opposite side to the hook, or with vertical sleeves in case of the side terminals , in which were ixed ornamental links or bronze rings.
If we set aside the diference of design this artefact is stylistically a very close parallel to the ind from Nowa Cerekwia.
A similar feature is seen on an ornamental attach- ment from a belt of Austrian-Bohemian type part of the inventory of inhumation grave no.
In its design and ornamentation this piece closely resembles the ind from Nowa Cerekwia. Instead, to the V-shaped terminal of its frame-like construction are attached two decorative pendants.
It is possible that the ind from the settlement at Nowa Cerekwia is an ornamental belt attachment rather than a belt terminal.
In case of inds from the two latter sites this is supported also by the analogical form of the stylised animal heads serving the role of hooks see earlier discussion.
In one of them the outer parts of the sleeves are lightly proiled and decorated with a motif of a diagonal cross Pl.
In the other specimens the outer surface is plain. Despite the lack of analogies, the size and traces of wear indicate that these are most likely to have been belt chain links.
Similar links are known from locations other than Nowa Cerekwia. In the collection of new inds from Nowa Cerekwia there are quite a large number of bronze rings of various diameters and cross-sections Pl.
In the main, the only exceptions are belts in which the links are connected with a chain cf. Continued friction could have caused the ring to fracture Pl.
Equally numerous as the rings in this group of inds are bronze pendants Pl. Also notable is the presence of similar single pendants Pl.
A sepa- rate group have oblong and lattened pendants Pl. Spindle-shaped pendants formed part of a complete belt of Austrian-Bohemian type, an element of the inventory of grave no.
Polenz proposes to date this assemblage to the early stage of LT C1 Polenz , although ibulae found in the Giengen cemetery Polenz , 66, Abb.
Bujna , 58, ig. A pendant for the specimen decorated with red enamel Pl. Also noteworthy is a pen- dant Pl.
Benadik , 98; Zachar , , ig. Poor conservation hinders their typological classiication. Found among them are specimens with a hook terminal in the form of a stylised animal head with bulging eyes Pl.
Hooks of similar form are a feature oten observed on fasteners or buckles of Celtic chain-belts. In this group of inds there are also simple forms of buckles or fasteners with a leaf-shaped plate and a hook-like terminal Pl.
Even in their frag- mented condition it can be ascertained that in one case lush with the plate there was a ring.
Simple belt fasteners or buckles of this form are much rarer than specimens with stylised animal representations. Louny in north-western Bohemia Filip , pl.
In many cases some of the characteristic elements buckles or fasten- ers, links, pendants were all ixed to one and the same belt which could be one of a number of types.
It is worth noting that these dress accessories were oten quite elaborate, presumably assembled from elements selected from what individual cratsmen had in stock.
A conclusive identiication of separate belt types is possible only in some cases. In this situation the classiication and dating of these inds from settlement contexts, surviving fragmented as a rule has to be matched against a serious degree of error.
Personal ornaments he dominant ind in the group of personal ornaments made of bronze recovered from the settle- ment at Nowa Cerekwia are fragments of bracelets and anklets Pl.
Possibly the oldest among them is an uninished segment of a bracelet in the form of a plain, round-sectioned ingot with thick- ened and proiled terminals Pl.
Even so, in south Bavaria similar forms are one of the markers for Horizont 4 of lat cemeteries Gebhard , ig. Ingot bracelets, possibly anklets, decorated with closely spaced incisions are one of the markers of the same horizon also in Moravia and in Bohemia Gebhard , ig.
On the other hand, specimens decorated around their circumference with engraved ornament Pl. Rudnicki to be the neck ring from grave no.
Presumably, the personal ornament from Nowa Cerekwia also had four ornamented thickened bulges spaced on its perimeter at even intervals.
Even if we have only a small fragment of this specimen we may conclude that it resembled bracelets found in graves no. Originally it consisted of three segments attached with hinges.
Given its characteristic cross-section its prototypes may be found among glass bracelets with three ribs. Consequently we cannot say which of these types provided the direct inspiration for the ornament and this afects the question of its dating.
Of the class of ornaments of the greatest interest to us here the most widespread in the western region of Central Europe is type 6a.
Amongst the inds inventory under analysis here is a fragment of a Hohlbuckelringe or anklet com- posed of hollow hemispheres Pl. As they tended to evolve relatively steadily across time they are a fairly reliable chronologically diagnostic form.
According to Gebhard , ig. It is hard to conclude as to what fragment of what personal ornament or what dress accessory is the next item in the inventory of inds from Nowa Cerekwia — a cluster of three knobs decorated with punch-marks Pl.
However we cannot discount that in our case this may be a decorative element of a bracelet ornamented with pseudo-iligree.
A ind without analogies whatsoever is a fragment of a hoop of bronze sheet with raised edges between which there are hemispherical knobs Pl.
In view of its small reconstructed diameter this object may be interpreted as a fragment of a inger-ring. A possible personal ornament could be the bronze igurine of a stylised human, arms crossed over the breast Pl.
It survives nearly complete missing only a fractured eyelet. One of the eye sockets retains a residue of black enamel which may have also decorated the round impressions above the arms.
Although this artefact lacks exact analogies similar, small anthropomorphic igurines are recorded pretty much everywhere on the Celtic territory cf.
One of them Pl. It may have been worn as a pendant around the neck or attached as a pendant to the terminal of an elite belt-chain. Related by its anthropomorphic form to the ind just described is a igurine in the form of a human foot Pl.
Highly stylised, it cannot be easily identiied to be the representation of a naked foot or of a shod one — although the irst interpretation seems more plausible.
Perhaps this is an uninished object. But if we take a closer look at the material from Nowa Cerekwia in a broader cultural context, from the perspective of the situation in the territory to the north of the Carpathians and Sudetesland, this state of afairs is validated, explaining many cultural pro- cesses which unfolded in this northern territory.
However, these issues are in need of a separate, more extensive discussion. Hinges with a tripartite rosette appear only rarely in the territory of the Jastorf culture.
A tripartite rosette, although a little diferent in shape, is seen gracing the top of a hinge discovered at Geesthacht, also in Holstein, but in its southern outlying area Kersten On this basis both inds may be dated broadly to LT C.
Most of them are types recorded earlier at this site cf. Karwowski , 60—61, 65— In grave inventories they are discovered in associa- tion with the oldest forms of bracelets made of blue-green glass Karwowski , 33, 69, ig.
Rudnicki higher ribbing, dated to LT C1b. Further specimens of cobalt glass representing the Group 8b variant 1 with a broad central rib and relatively long incisions Pl.
A form of artefact not recorded earlier, not only in the settlement at Nowa Cerekwia but not in any other site to the north of the Carpathians and the Sudetesland, are cylindrical objects of blue coiled glass thread Pl.
Finished objects of this type were recovered during the archaeological investigation of the site at Nowa Cerekwia by Czerska Pl. In this context what is of signiicance is that they document glassmaking in a settlement found to the north of the Carpathians and the Sudetesland which we can date using the rest of the inds from Nowa Cerekwia.
Most of them are representations of birds. Representations of animals other than birds are much less common. Among them is a igurine of a hare with an iron collar around its neck Pl.
In this latter case species identiication is made diicult by the degree of stylisation of the representation. Nevertheless, this is more likely to be a representation of a hedgehog as supported by the proportions of the head relative to the rest of the body and its short snout.
A common feature of the igurines is their lat or rather, recessed base or the presence of feet and a lack of means for attach- ment, holes or traces of soldering.
Most likely they served their function in the form in which they have now been recovered. No less than 53 of them are representations of birds, mostly water fowl 28 specimens.
A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 45 A larger series of analogous inds 22 specimens , again most of them birds, comes from a number of unlisted sites to the north and south of the Danube Jandrasits It is quite likely that one of them is the settlement at Roseldorf Bez.
Hollabrunn , the other — a similar site at Etzersdorf in Lower Austria. Jandrasits has argued — to my mind, quite incorrectly — that these igurines are coin weights.
Individual zoomorphic igurines have also been discovered in other sites in Lower Austria, for example at Michelstetten Lauermann , , ig.
An exception is the site at Polkovice okr. Given their high degree of similarity we may surmise that the igurines played the role of a standardized form of votive object.
Perhaps they were ofered to a deity whose principal attribute was birds. If this was so, then could it be that the sanctuary dedicated to a bird deity had a particular structure which so far has eluded detection.
It is noteworthy that the investigation of sanctuary structures at Roseldorf unearthed a rich assemblage of votive objects which however did not include igurines similar to those we have discussed here cf.
Most of them presumably may be interpreted as weights, which in theory at least would relate them to the monetary system of the Boii cf. Paulsen ; Castelin To begin with very few objects which have suspension loops Pl.
However, perhaps this is only a form of ornament and not any special mark indicat- ing a speciic weight. On one of its faces is a central ring with a dot in the centre and four additional dots, one in every corner.
Despite obvious stylistic similarities, this time it is also too hard to claim as having any connection with a Boii weighing system from the pre- oppida times.
A separate, fairly uniform group comprises a few dozen bronze objects, most of them in the form of hemispheres or cones or, more rarely, discs Pl.
A few might be claimed as part of a set owing to their weight distribution. Intermediate specimens have a weight close to that of the conical object with a diameter of Rudnicki lighter category of the discussed inds is represented by a specimen in the form of a disc, with a diameter of 7.
Of similar weight 0. One of the lightest specimens has the form of a section of a sphere with a diameter of 5. On the other hand a whole series has been recorded at some unnamed sites on the Danube Jandrasits , 79—80, catalogue no.
Not only is their form highly similar to that of the inds from Nowa Cerekwia, as for instance a specimen with a proiled base Jandrasits , 80, ig.
Jandrasits interpreted these inds as coin weights, matching them somewhat dubiously to the chronologically and geographically mixed denominations of Boii coinage.
What remains a problem is how to explain the weight of other objects in the discussed group. It seems very likely that some of them — especially those in the form of a disc — possibly uninished or mis-struck — lans of silver or gold plated coins subaerati.
We cannot rule out that the rest of the artefacts which have a weight that does not correspond to that of the Boii coins of minting Period A — are also weights.
Perhaps the system of weights used by the Celts was much more complex than might have seem at irst to be the case, and the estimated weights may correspond to units that we still do not understand.
Before closing this section we need to mention inds which supply evidence of local bronze work- ing — casting Pl. Numismatic inds From the many seasons of archaeological excavations on the site of Nowa Cerekwia made before we had an unimpressive series of just three coins.
All the later inds were from sec- ondary deposits. Its ill also contained a fragment of a sapropelite bracelet and sherds,9 a few fragments of daub and some animal bones.
Unfortunately, nothing more is known about these inds owing to the inadequate nature of their publication. At each end of the axis of this feature was a posthole.
A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 47 three iron objects; a needle, a hook, and an ingot, as well as sherds,10 33 fragments of daub and 16 animal bones.
Coins are the largest group in the inventory of inds from the ieldwork carried out in — and number specimens. If we include four coins discovered before and approximately a further 30 from detectorist inds we arrive at a total of around coins,12 of which at least 62 are gold — both complete and clipped.
According to unoicial igures in the period — treasure hunters may have recovered as many as coins. In general, the group may be divided into three groups all from the same chronological period: At Nowa Cerekwia gold specimens are represented entirely by coins of the main series.
Notable also is a very small rep- resentation of subaerate coins. In the recorded part of the coin ind series from Nowa Cerekwia there are only three such coins: A unique specimen is a clipped fragment of a stater with a clear representation of Athena holding a shield Pl.
On the obverse of all coins of this type discovered at Nowa Cerekwia there is a distinct head of Pallas Athena in wearing a Corinthian helmet and with the head turned to the right, and on the reverse — without a shadow of doubt — Athena Alkidemos advancing let and holding her shield upraised to the let.
In case of other specimens of Plumlov type the situation presumably is the same, but owing to the deterioration of the sharpness on the die this cannot be ascertained conclusively.
Notable at the same time is the low frequency not only from Nowa Cerekwia in the material record, of stylistically good gold denomina- tions of Athena Alkidemos type, such as the unique stater Pl.
Rudnicki this practice is that the weight standard was being reduced because throughout this period the metal standard apparently did not change.
A vast majority of the numismatic inds from Nowa Cerekwia are minor silver coins, conventionally described as obols. A considerable number of them are poorly preserved.
Given the good condition of two specimens discovered in — we may assume that the surface of these more recent coin inds was damaged by chemical action including lime used as crop fertiliser.
It is hard to assess the impact of corrosion on the reduction of the weight of individual coins but we need to take this factor into account when making statistical analyses.
Almost without exception the obols are the main types known for the territory covered by the coinage system of the Boii. As a rule they are fairly poorly preserved, their weight being in the range of approximately 0.
However, as will be noted these terms no longer appear to be adequate. Most of them survive in poor condition and in a few cases it is uncertain whether above the horse there was originally a star or some other symbol.
Interestingly enough, these smallest Boii coin fractions were further subdivided into smaller parts Pl. Also, among obols from Roseldorf there is an apparent quantitative domination of type Roseldorf II.
Perhaps, these diferences are the result of diferences in the chronology? One of them is a clipped fragment of an Eastern Celtic tetradrachm Preda , 29—47, pl.
With a weight of 0. For the time being close analogies are known only from Lower Austria which area also has a record of other variants of obols with a very similar reverse Jandrasits , , nos.
Coins are not the only numismatic object made of gold and silver in the inds from Nowa Cerekwia. One of these objects resembles in its shape a hemispherical, unin- ished coin lan Pl.
Apart from these inds, another conirmation of the local production of gold coins at Nowa Cerekwia is the frag- ment of a gold rod with constrictions at regular intervals Pl.
With a length of Two of them weigh around 4 g and may be interpreted as melted down drachms. Even more notable however are two other silver lumps of regular shape and very similar in weight, 1.
Given the circum- stances presented here of naming the entire group of these coins as Roseldorf I and II Dembski , 6, 8, no. Group 3 in the numismatic inventory from Nowa Cerekwia closes with imported coins, non-Celtic — at least nine Greek bronzes.
Rudnicki of distant travels or votive oferings, eventually as a handy stock of valuable metal. Celtic mercenaries could get them probably as sitonion also siteresion or sitarchia which is a name referred to rations in kind or the equivalent amount in money — i.
In the history of coinages of Athens is reported by literary sources pseudo-Aristotle, Economics, a; Polyaenos, Stratagems, 3. When assessing its signiicance and character we need to be aware that we have at our disposal only a fragment of the original body of data relating to this centre.
A diametrically diferent view though also incorrect, was presented by Pescheck In his reconstruction the basalt outcrop used to be the site of an oppidum — or a Celtic proto-urban settlement — which extended sup- posedly over an area of about ha.
Putting aside the verac- ity of the information about the existence of traces of earthworks near to the settlement it must be said that the settlement at Nowa Cerekwia, if only because of its chronology, cannot have been an oppidum.
Presumably it was an open settlement, at least 6 ha in area. We have to keep in mind that most of inds are items of non-ferrous metals.
It cannot be regarded as relecting the reality of the situation because men certainly inhabited the settlement as well.
Perhaps they are the earliest coins issued at that site but equally well they could have been brought in from outside during its early phase. One commodity — amber — was brought in from the north Pl.
A major role was played by export to the territory inhabited by closely related Celtic groups to the east the western part of Lesser Poland and to the north-west Lower Silesia.
Celtic gold coins also entered the territory what was then under Germanic settlement, now central Poland Pl. It is here that warriors from the north came, ready to serve in the eastern Mediterranean.
Some of the mercenaries would have been Germanic, for there is no other way to explain the presence of Greek coins Mielczarek , map 1 in Germanic Jastorf and Przeworsk Cultures contexts in central Poland — in Kuyavia and western Mazovia Pl.
Bronze Greek coins were deinitely not an object of long-distance exchange. Germanic mercenaries — as well as Celtic — could get them probably as sitonion.
We can link this process, one that is recorded in various forms, in other areas of Central Europe, to a concrete historical occurrence — the migration of the Cimbri and the Teutones, whose beginning is usually dated to around BC though one should note that this date is only an approximation as the irst point in this migration was the Battle of Noreia, where in BC for the irst time the Germans defeated the forces of Rome Appianos, Celtica Classical authors record that before pushing into Noricum the Cimbri and Teutones had entered the territory of the Boii but were forced out from this area to the lands of the Scordisci and only from there did they march westward Poseidonios in Strabo VII 2, Very likely their route from Jutland ran through the territory of the Boii in Upper Silesia and then on by way of the Moravian Gate and down the valley of the Morava, to the lands on the Danube.
It is quite likely that the migra- tion of the Cimbri and the Teutones also triggered profound settlement change as has been observed in Moravia.
During various stages of their movement east the Cimbri would have been accompanied by sub-groups of various Celtic tribes. Amongst them were also the Boii Neuman et al.
In any case, the investigations made at Nowa Cerekwia have identiied no evidence of destruction to indicate that the end of the settlement was accompanied by major evidence of destruction.
On the contrary, the presence of coil-built pottery with Jastorf and Przeworsk features c. Grygiel , but not in the materials from Schleswig-Holstein or Jutland.
Presumably the Cimbri chose to travel through Upper Silesia because it was occupied by friendly tribes of Germanic extraction and their Celtic allies.
In any case it is likely that they set of south together with them. For example, the archaeological record from Roseldorf includes coins from the oppida period, i.
Also, it seems that the centre at Nowa Cerekwia was the probably earliest of the three to be established. Nowa Cerekwia, positioned at the outlet of the Moravian Gate, had a strategic signiicance for the control over communication routes connecting Moravia with the lands lanking the Odra and the Vistula rivers and, in a larger perspective command- ing the southern regions of Europe with the Baltic Sea basin.
In view of the similarity of the archaeological record, particularly, with regard to the numismatic inds from the three centres, we can hazard a guess that they were part of the same socio- political system.
Possibly this structure may be identiied as being related to the Boii and perceived as a federation of tribes. Centres of this type — resi- dences of the Celtic elite — were the foci of political, social and religious life, as well as of production and commerce.
Most likely, they also served as mustering points from which warriors ready to hire out their services set of on journeys to the Mediterranean.
It is strik- ing that the majority of hoard inds18 of gold Boii coins of approximately similar chronology19 have been discovered spread the length of this route Pl.
Bednarek Bednarek, M. Benadik Benadik, B. Bieger Bieger, A. Bokiniec Bokiniec, E. Bujna Bujna, J. Castelin Castelin, K.
Czerska Czerska, B. Dembski Dembski, G. Echt Echt, R. Filip Filip, J. Gebhard Gebhard, R. Gedl Gedl, M. Giganon Giganon, D.
Grygiel Grygiel, M. Haffner Hafner, A. Haevernick Haevernick, h. Hingst Hingst, H. Hodson Hodson, F. Holzer Holzer, V. Jahn Jahn, M.
Jandrasits Jandrasits, H. Karwowski Karwowski, M. Kersten Kersten, K. Zu den Ausgrabungen in den Jahren bis , Germania, 40, — Lauermann Lauermann, E.
Schritenreihe der Forschung im Verbund, Band , Wien, — Liampi Liampi, K. Lippert Lippert, A. Marciniak Marciniak, J. Meduna Meduna, J. Mielczarek Mielczarek, M.
Rudnicki Neuman et al. Newrzella Newrzella, O. Paulsen Paulsen, R. Pescheck Pescheck, Ch. Petersen Petersen, E. Pieta Pieta, K. Polenz Polenz, H.
Polenska Poleska, P. Preda Preda, C. Reitinger Reitinger, J. Richthofen Richthofen, von B. Le Rider Le Rider, G. Rudnicki Rudnicki, M. Rutter Rutter, N.
Segesta — Sardinia, Copenhagen. Stiebler Stiebler, M. Stoyas Stoyas, Y. Voigt Voigt, h. Warneke Warneke, T. Ziegaus Ziegaus, B. List of igures Fig.
View of the trench from the north; 2. Georg Raschke, ; 2. Museum of Opole Silesia, inv. Aerial photo of the Site 4 photos: View from north-east; in the distance are visible the Jeseniky mountain range in eastern Sudetesland; 2.
Selected bronze inds from the surface survey carried out in recent years drawing: Selected glass artefacts from the surface survey carried out in recent years drawing: Crucible made of clay containing graphite with a residue on its walls of corroded green-coloured metal discovered during by B.
Czerska in photo: Silver obol, Roseldorf II type; 3— Rudnicki gold coins, Nike and Athena Alkidemos type; 16— Selected gold plated subaerate coins, Athena Alkidemos type; A clipped fragment of a gold stater, Athena Alkidemos type; 19— Fragment of an imitation silver tetradrachm, Philip II irst series type; Clipped fragments of gold bars; 5—6.
Bronze coin of Philip II of Macedon; 9. Bronze coin of Kroton in Bruttium; Bronze coin of Hiero II ruler of Syracuse; Bronze coin of Pentonkion, Mamertines of Messana; Raw amber discovered in ; Finds of early Boii coins minting Period A acc.
Greek coin inds in the Central European Barbaricum star: Nowa Cerekwia, ater Mielczarek ; 2. Hoards with only gold Boii coins from minting Period A 1.
Rudnicki 1 2 3 4 Plate 2. A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 63 1 2 3 4 6 8 9 11 10 5 7 12 13 14 20 21 22 15 16 17 18 19 27 24 25 26 23 28 30 33 34 29 32 31 Plate 5.
A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 65 5 3 4 1 6 2 10 11 12 17 9 16 8 13 14 15 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Plate 7.
Crucible made of clay containing graphite with a residue on its walls of corroded green-coloured metal discovered by B.
A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 67 1 9 5 7 2 3 4 10 8 6 11 14 15 12 13 16 18 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 30 29 28 0 1 cm Plate 9.
Selected gold coins, Nike and Athena Alkidemos type; 16— Rudnicki 1 2 Plate Eastern Austria, cratsmen, graves, pottery kilns, pottery ornamentation When approaching questions of prehistoric cratsmanship it is essential to identify information based on sources and to examine critically their past interpretation.
In this respect the role of the grave goods may be con- sidered as: At the same time, these areas ofer a link to the Carpathian Basin see also Ramsl ; a.
In this region several burials have been found with an inventory indicating that the individual in the grave was associated with cratsmanship.
In the Traisen Valley, in the small pit of Pottenbrunn grave no. Resin can be used as an adhesive for diferent materi- als, but also as a cushion for engraving work or generally as a working-surface.
Next to this grave, grave no. Ramsl the form of the bufer-terminals of torcs found particularly in north-eastern France — an expression of the high skills of Celtic ine metalwork makers Megaw et al.
Map of archaeological sites in Eastern Austria and the surrounding area mentioned in the text. But the grave good require us to reconsider his profession.
All these artefacts could have been used in pharmaceutical or medicinal practice, but also they could be used for working leather knives , textiles the shears , bone or antler saw or metal the whetstone.
A pair of shears was found separately from the large tools Pl. One is an antler tine with a groove at one end. Another is shaped like a quiver and is also made of antler.
Another reading is that it is a tool for embossing metal. In cremation grave no. As in similar burials, a small group of objects was placed between the right hip and the right hand Pl.
In this grave two fragments of iron bracelets, one small bronze ring and several small bronze fragments with grooves were placed together. So here, with some caution it can be postulated that this inventory demonstrates the access of the individual or of the familia to a range of resources.
Besides the interpretation of grave inventories, settle- ment features also can indicate the presence of cratsmen and cratsmanship.
Next to the production centres, the distribution areas of pottery decoration are an indication of pos- sible workshops. It is the case of pots from Mannersdorf graves no.
Analogous signs — only stamped into the clay, not engraved Pl. Regarding the genuine ornamentation techniques of the region it can be noticed, that the Traisen Valley and neighbouring areas are rich in artefacts which are decorated with ornaments constructed with a compass Ramsl , Abb.
Around the omphalos on the inside of the bowl two concentric circles can be seen. Analogies can be mentioned from the settlement of Inzersdorf-Walpersdorf Ramsl , Abb.
In both cases the compass point is still visible Pl. An example of a combination of circle ornamentation and stamps can be seen on the pot from Pottenbrunn grave no.
Here a sophisticated circle construction Pl. As a close analogy one may cite the Linsenlasche from Gars am Kamp Pl.
It is probable that a special type of compass having a simple shape — a Stangenzirkel — was used, which consists of a small piece of wooden board and two metal points.
However, Croatia lost the match 4—2 and was once again eliminated from the tournament as the third-placed nation in its group. This was the third consecutive time this had happened in a major tournament.
His sterling performances against Germany and Turkey ultimately unrewarded in what could prove to be his last major tournament.
Croatia were drawn in Group 5 of the qualifying competition, together with Switzerland , Ukraine , Latvia and Liechtenstein. In the first four games Croatia got the maximum of 12 points with a goal difference of 13—0.
He debuted with a 5—0 away win against Liechtenstein, before he brought two away wins against the group favourites Ukraine and Switzerland.
Players returned for pre—season training on 2 July He has two younger siblings, brother Robert and sister Nikolina.
They have a daughter Laura. He generally lives a quiet family life, and considers a family of great value and tries to convey that to his players.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 March Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 18 March Retrieved 13 February Retrieved 11 June Retrieved 10 June Retrieved 21 January Retrieved 9 June Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 5 July Sas Bild des Kindes im kroatischen Kinderroman des In der Strukturbildung des Romans spielt die Stereotypie der panslawistischen Bedrohung der ungarischen Nation eine strukturbildende Rolle.
Seit dem ansgehenden Natinale Stereotype als historische Allegorien in der modernen ungarischen Lyrik: Aufgrund dieses Gesichtspunktes wird dem allegorischen Aspekt der poetischen Sprache besondere Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt.
Der Beitrag stellt die Frage: Wie gewinnen diese wiederkehrenden Begriffe als Symbole einem reflexivremporalischen allegorischen Sinn, wie verdrehen und erneuern sie ihre stereotypische Bedeutung?
Die Rede ist von in der Romantik oft zum Vorschein kommenden Motiven wie z. From land to the city: Budapest in the poetry of the 19th century Hungary: The lecture discusses how Budapest became a topic of modern Hungarian poetry.
Although this subject is widely discussed among literary theorists of the past few decades, it is still missing Hungarian literary history.
From the s to the end of the century the newborn capital in a special relation to Vienna gained its own faces.
Some of these faces were represented of stricty shaped by literary works of art. Therefore, myi nterest is not only historical of cultural, it moves rather toward the poetical formations of the topic.
Das Bild der Kroaten in der deutschprachigen Literatur: In alkl diesen Texten findet sich nirgendwo mehr die deutlich negative Charakterisierung der Kroaten, wie wir sie aus aSchillers Wallenstein kennen.
Deutlich wird in diesem Zusammenghang auch, dass von dem kulturellen Stereotyp des Kroaten in der modernen deutschsprachigen Literatur ernsthaft nicht geredet werden kann.
Viel interessanter ist die gleichzeitige Ungarophilie in Dubrovnik und Dalmatien M. Stereotype kultureller "Gestaltungstechniken" in der Avantgarde: Das Eigene und das Fremde in der IMagologie ; 3.
Vorurteile als Bedingungen des Verstehens:Gibt es einen Topkandidaten bei der Trainersuche von Eintracht Frankfurt? Alle Kommentare öffnen Seite 1. Um Ihnen ein besseres Nutzererlebnis zu bieten, verwenden wir Cookies. Ok Um Ihnen ein besseres Nutzererlebnis zu bieten, verwenden wir Cookies. West Ham hat soweit ich dies aus der Ferne mitbekommen habe, gerade in der ersten Saisonhälfte Schwierigkeiten gehabt und ist mit einem Endspurt in der BPL geblieben. Nachfolger des 49 Jahre alten Kroaten, der noch einen Vertrag bis zum Saisonende hatte, soll nach Medieninformationen David Moyes werden. Baggert die Eintracht an Slaven Bilic? Die "Hammers" hatten am Wochenende 1: Ob Moyes jetzt unbedingt der Richtige ist, das können Insider und Insulaner sicher besser beurteilen als ich, aber ich bin sehr skeptisch. Lokomotive Moskau und Besiktas Istanbul. Das könnte Sie auch interessieren. Ihr Kommentar zum Thema. Die Homepage wurde aktualisiert. Mehr zum Thema Eintracht Frankfurt. So wollen wir debattieren.
bisherige trainerstationen bilić slaven - for thatBilic, wie Kovac kroatischer Herkunft, war bis zum vergangenen Herbst Trainer beim englischen Erstligisten West Ham United, ehe er nach lediglich zwei Siegen aus den ersten elf Saisonspielen entlassen wurde. Nur zwei Siege aus elf Spielen: Schon vor Kovac bis coachte Bilic von bis die kroatische Nationalmannschaft. Lokomotive Moskau und Besiktas Istanbul. Eine Veränderung sei "notwendig, damit der Klub sich positiv und seinen Ambitionen entsprechend entwickeln" könne, begründete der Verein die Trennung. Ihr Kommentar zum Thema. Der frühere Karlsruher Bundesligaprofi Bilic hatte West Ham im Juli übernommen und seine erste Spielzeit mit einem starken siebten Platz abgeschlossen.
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Retrieved 29 May Bayern Munich announce Croat will replace Jupp Heynckes". Retrieved 13 April Retrieved 18 April Bayern Munich 1—3 Eintracht Frankfurt".
Retrieved 19 May Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 3 July Retrieved 8 July Retrieved 12 August Retrieved 26 August FC Bayern Munich — current squad.
Croatia national football team — managers. Eintracht Frankfurt — managers. FC Bayern Munich — managers. Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.
Berlin-Wedding , West Germany. Its decoration is elaborate: Further unfortunately destructive analysis would be needed to determine this. So far this is the only known example of gilded silver sheet in south- eastern Pannonia, the territory controlled by the Scordisci.
Two exquisite inds — bracelets from Osijek P, App. Filigree and granula- tion decoration is found on the lat part of the band; a simpler decoration is present on the Erdut sample a bead and a tendril , whereas the decoration on the Osijek bracelet is more complicated, with conical protrusions and closely spaced granulation.
Hence, the Scordisci were the link between the Hellenistic world in the south and Celtic regions in the north.
Glass pieces may have also been a part of the decoration, but these are missing from the necklace. Bracelets of this type are somewhat older than the items noted above: One analysis could be taken as sup- porting this hypothesis: What was the reason for the diferences in copper quantities in the alloy recipes?
But, in all likelihood, it was a consequence of new metallurgical knowledge, new trade routes and the arrival of cratsmen with diferent metallurgical traditions to the area.
Higher copper percentages were noted in the Sisak ibula and in certain construction elements of some items such as the loop connecting the chains of the female head pendant, or the rivet on the Laminci-type buckle.
Although tin was detected in the Sisak ibula, it was probably not a product of a Scordiscan workshop. However, the reason for the presence of tin in this sample and the possible rela- tionships with the Jarak-type ibulae needs to be further investigated.
Conversely, the accidental inds of matrices in Sisak open up the possibility of local workshops that need to be looked at in more detail in further research.
In general, the wide geographical distribution of the analysed material bears testimony to the exist- ence of cultural interactions in the Carpathian Basin and the Western Balkans, characterized by the preference for silver as a prestige material for jewellery and dress elaboration, with slight regional dis- tinctions in types of adornment — for example, the Jarak-type ibulae, characteristic of the Scordisci, or the Liburnian anthropomorphic pendants, spread throughout the Eastern Adriatic and its hinterland.
Some objects are found in an even wider area, such as silver sheet pendants or chains made of inter- twined wire, conirming the existence of a communication network through which these objects, as well as the tendencies for their employment in dress elaboration, were transported between local Pannonian, western Balkan, Dacian and Hellenistic workshops.
It is precisely through the broadening of compatible data sets and comparisons of the conducted analyses that the further progress is to be made in the study of Late Iron Age technology and metallurgi- cal traditions in the Carpathian Basin.
Standard deviations SD , coeicients of variation CV , and absolute d absolute and relative d relative errors both in the analysed and standard values indicate a satisfactory accuracy of the portable instrument.
Historical Metallurgy Society Datasheets: London, he Historical Metallurgy Society. Egri—Rustoiu Egri, M. Local identity and regional contacts in theancient world, IN: Hughes—Hall Hughes, M.
Kassianidou Kassianidou, V. Klemenc Klemenc, J. Mitrevski Mitrevski, D. Le second Age du Fer dans la cuvette des Karpates, Paris. Tite Tite, M.
Vinski Vinski, Z. Ternary diagram of copper-tin- lead in the Jarak-type ibulae. P, P, P ; 4—6. P, P, P ; 7. P- ; 5. However, ibulae of this type have also been documented in the neighbouring areas and even at sites in the northern parts of the Carpathian Basin Fig.
Sites of bronze ibulae with a rectangular plaque and enamel decoration. Although bronze ibulae characterised by enamel decoration were distinguished as a separate type from very early on, it was initially believed that they formed part of bronze belts decorated in the same way, sometimes even with the same motifs Sellye Another advocate of the opinion that they were a characteristic form of the material heritage of the Scordisci was M.
Nevertheless, the most detailed analysis so far was published by P. Within this assemblage he recognized certain inds that could be interpreted as wasters, which would indicate a local production of the Scordisci in eastern Syrmia.
In addition to the Scordiscan territory, bronze ibulae with a rectangular plaque decorated with enamel appear also at other sites in the Carpathian Basin Fig.
Bronze ibulae with a rectangular plaque from Romanian sites have been distinguished as type 5a and which generally have depressions in the shape of a rectangle or triangle Beldiman , —, ig.
When one discusses the beginning of the production and the origin of this characteristic type of female attire, it is important to compare them with iron ibulae that are also decorated with enamel.
Likewise, through a detailed typological classiication we might put forward a more speciic time frame for the use of the distinguished forms.
Foot terminals segmented in this way always lie above the bow. Bronze ibulae with a rectangular plaque can be divided into several variants based on the shape of the depression for the enamel, whose distributions may point to the position of the workshops for their manufacture.
Bronze ibulae with a rectangular plaque with a rectangular or square depression Fig. Dizdar Novi Banovci has also yielded numerous ibulae of this variant.
On the foot, between two small knobs, there is a square or rectangular plaque with a depression of the same shape in which traces of enamel are preserved.
A groove runs along the edges of the plaque. Some fragments could belong to wasters or uninished specimens Sellye , pl.
A ibula from Uilac Pl. A ibula from Ritopek can be considered as a separate form within the distinguished variant. Bronze ibulae with a rectangular plaque on which there is a round or oval depression Fig.
On both ibulae the end of the foot gently widens in the form of an anchor toward the spring, which was presumably composed of six-coil spring with internal cord Pieta , 32, ig.
Bronze ibulae with a rectangular plaque with a hourglass-shaped depression Fig. A groove runs along the edges of the plaque, while the foot widens in the form of an anchor above the spring that probably consisted of six externally connected coils.
On the knob before the plaque there are also small oval depressions. Bronze ibulae with a rectangular plaque on which there is a depression in the shape of two hourglasses with or without a small round depression Fig.
From Alba Iulia is a ibula with a low trapezoidal bow and a long foot on which, above the bow, between two small knobs, there is a rectangular plaque with two hourglass-shaped depressions, with a round depression between them Pl.
Dizdar are depressions in the shape of two hourglasses, between which there is an additional round depression Pieta , 31, ig.
Bronze ibulae with a rectangular plaque on which there is a curvilinear depression Fig. Bronze ibulae with a rectangular plaque on which there is a central depression surrounded by small depressions in the corners Fig.
Novi Banovci yielded also a fragment of the foot of a ibula with a knob and rectangular plaque con- nected by a round plaque, suggesting that we are dealing with uninished specimens.
A fragment of the foot of a ibula with a plaque decorated in the similar way Pl. On the plaque there is a rhombic- shaped central depression and a triangular depression in each corner.
Sites of bronze ibulae with a rectangular plaque on which there are depressions with opposing series of triangles — the Boljevci variant.
Bronze ibulae with a rectangular plaque on which there are depressions with opposing series of triangles — the Boljevci variant Fig.
Near the end of the long foot of a ibula found in the area of the Scordiscan cemetery at Boljevci, between two small knobs, there is a rectangular plaque on which there are two opposing series of three triangular depressions inset with yellow and blue enamel Pl.
Between the triangular depressions, in the middle of the plaque, there are four concentric circles. Near the end of the foot, between two small knobs, there is a rectangular plaque with two opposing series of three triangular depressions between which there are four concentric circles.
A groove runs along the edge of the plaque. Novi Banovci yielded a part of the foot of a ibula with a rectangular plaque and a knob.
On the plaque, which has a groove along the edges, there are two opposing series of three triangular depres- sions separated by two concentric circles Sellye , pl.
Another ibula from Novi Banovci also has two series of triangular depressions separated by four concentric circles Pl.
From Kosmaj we have a part of the bow and foot of a ibula with a rectangular plaque between small knobs on either side Pl.
Due to this uncertainty we believe that the ibula supposedly found at Beli breg is in fact the previously mentioned ibula from the nearby site of Brestovik.
Only the rectangular plaque with a small knob on either side is preserved Pl. Banat yielded also a rectangu- lar plaque between two small knobs which is decorated with the same motif, while a groove runs along the edges Pl.
Near the end, above the spring, the foot widens into an elongated rectangular plaque Rustoiu , 99, ig. A fragment of a ibula from Zemun, of which a rectangular plaque with a single knob is preserved, can be attributed to the ibulae of the Boljevci variant Pl.
As a special form of this variant we can distinguish the ibulae with rectangular plaques and tri- angular depressions arranged in two opposing series, between which there are no concentric circles.
From the Danube bank near Zemun comes a fragment of the end of the foot with a rectangular plaque between two small knobs Pl.
In addition to bronze ibulae with rectangular plaques which are the most common form, there are many known bronze and iron ibulae with variously shaped plaques documented at sites throughout the Carpathian Basin and the south-eastern Alpine area.
For instance, in Romania, as the b variant ibulae were distinguished those with oval plaques that share the identical structural features with the ibulae with rectangular plaques Rustoiu , 38—39, ig.
Fibulae with a triangular plaque As a separate form we can distinguish ibulae with triangular depressions at the end of the foot; their remaining typological features, such as the position of the plaques at the end of the foot and the trapezoidal bow, they correspond to the forms with rectangular plaques.
Grave LT 12 in Zvonimirovo contained a pair of iron ibulae that have, at the end of the long foot, a bronze triangular section with a rectangular depression, which has a perforation at the bottom which passes also through the triangular bow Pl.
A similar iron ibula with a bronze triangular depression was found in the female grave at Kapiteljska njiva Fig. Grave A32 from Gracarca contained an iron ibula with a triangular depression.
Associated with a bronze belt in cre- mation grave of the Holiare cemetery was a bronze ibula with a triangular plaque between two small knobs at the end of the foot Pl.
Grave 25 in Dobova, dating to the Mokronog IIb phase, contained a large ibula with a long foot that has a rectangular plaque with folded lateral ends at the joint with the bow.
From the south eastern Alpine area there are also ibulae from Vinica, which, based on their structural features, although they also have rectangular plaques, probably relate to local forms Gabrovec , , pl.
Bronze ibulae with small, transverse depressions on the foot are another distinct type. For instance, a grave from Kablarovac near Gradina on the Bosut River contains a ibula with a trapezoidal bow on whose long foot, between two large knobs, there is a transverse depression which probably contained enamel or glass.
Between two knobs on the foot there is a rectangular depression, while the low bow which extends into a spring composed of four coils with external cord.
Judging from all the inds in the grave it was attributed to the burial of a prominent woman and dated to LT C1 Hellebandt , 60, pl.
With regard to the shape of the plaque and the protrusions, as well as the spatial distribution, two basic types can be distinguished.
To this class we can also attribute the fragment of a ibula from Donja Dolina, with a trian- gular plaque on which there is a depression of the same shape and which has on either side a damaged lateral protrusion.
Bronze ibulae or fragments from the sites of the Mokronog group belong to the second type. On each side of the plaque there is a lateral semicircular protrusion with a circular depression, while the end of the foot has the shape of a narrow rectangular plaque, set above the spring.
On either lateral end of the rectan- gular plaques there is a semicircular protrusion with a depression, while the edges of the plaques are decorated with incisions Stare , 43, pl.
On this fragment there is a preserved oval plaque, set between two knobs, with a protrusion on either lateral side Beldiman , , ig. Fibulae of this heterogeneous group are divided into a number of variants, primarily based on the shapes of depressions, which were probably illed with polychrome enamel.
Earlier assumptions pointed out that these ibulae can be considered a characteristic form of the mate- rial heritage of the Scordisci, whose distribution area yielded most inds.
However, recent investigations have shown that they were distributed from the Lower Danube Basin and Transylvania to the northern parts of the Carpathian Basin Fig.
In the same vein, ibulae with depressions on the rectangular plaque forming a complex com- position have so far most commonly been documented in the Middle and Lower Tisza Basin Fig.
Likewise, we should not exclude the possibility of the existence of work- shops for certain forms in Transylvania, as shown by recent inds. On the other hand, contemporaneous ibulae with a triangular plaque can be considered as products of workshops situated in the south east Alpine and south west Pannonian areas.
Appendix 1 List of sites Bronze ibulae with a rectangular plaque with a rectangular or square depression Fig. Dizdar Dizdar, M. Dular Dular, A.
Ferencz Ferencz, I. Gabrovec Gabrovec, S. Gaiu Gaiu, C. Gleirscher Gleirscher, P. Local identity and regional contacts in the ancient world, IN: Hellebrandt Hellebrandt, M.
Horedt Horedt, K. Hunyady Hunyady, I. Moga Moga, V. Pavlin Pavlin, P. Rustoiu Rustoiu, A. Sellye Sellye, I. Stanczik—Vaday Stanczik, I.
Stare Stare, V. Der Forschungsstand, Dacia N. Uilac ater Rustoiu ; 5. Blatnica ater Pieta ; Alba Iulia ater Moga ; 2. Banat ater Rustoiu ; 5.
Banat—Iron Gates ater Rustoiu ; 6—7. Zvonimirovo ater Dizdar ; Strmec nad Belo Cerkvo ater Pavlin B, B, B, B Owing to limitations of space questions concerning the lifespan and relative chronology of the Szajk Iron Age site complex cannot be discussed in detail.
A strong distinction between the settlement features of the diferent chronological phases cannot be established. Neither does the set- tlement structure show a clear chronological pattern.
Unfortunately, metal inds are sparse at Szajk. As to our present knowledge, the Hungarian part of Baranya, i. However, until now we only knew of cemeteries of the Srem Group, the main part of the material consisting of inds of unknown provenance.
Fibulae from the site. Excavation of these cemeteries indicated that a population of mixed burial rites with strong local traditions lived in the area in the sixth—fourth centuries BC.
As it has already been pointed out several times, the deiciencies of research are also indicated by the fact that material of the Srem Group is known almost exclusively from burials: Filling the hiatus, the Szajk settlement complex has produced numerous inds, like the few Certosa ibula fragments and the kantharos type vessels with handles raised well above the rim, which correlate with those found in the above mentioned cemeteries.
Chronologically, the material of the Srem Group has been divided into two sub-groups: Several attempts have been made to explain the heterogeneity of the Srem Group.
With the replacement of cremation with inhumation a distinct change can be observed in the burial rite in the late, sixth century BC phase of the Doroslovo cemetery of the Dalj Culture.
On the Crossroads of Cultures. Kantharoi Kantharoi are one of the most common types of vessel in Szajk. Most of the surviving examples are fragments.
In many cases only the presence of shoulder fragments with one or two stubs of the handle, or sherds of lat handles indicated the presence of kantharoi in the ill of certain features.
Almost all of these vessels show traces of graphite painting with the fabric of the body being either brick-red or dark grey. Wheel- inishing of certain pieces cannot be excluded, but its traces cannot be discerned because of the bur- nished surface and graphite painting.
Types of kantharoi from the site. In the Classical tradition kantharoi were associated with the cult of Dionysos and served as cups for drinking wine Rustoiu—Egri , and as such, they can be associated with oinochoai.
Oinochoai he most remarkable, and at the same the most controversial pottery inds from the Szajk site are the jugs oinochoai with their spout formed by half of the neck vertically cut away Fig.
At the bot- tom of pit no. As a result of this lucky ind we were able to identify oino- choai even on the basis of small rim sherds.
However, the multiple examples in the ind material found in iteen features of the Szajk settlement suggests that it was known for the popula- tion living there.
Based on the stratigraphy of Kastanas, jugs with spouts have been present in Central Macedonia from the Bronze Age.
In the Iron Age the previous group prevailed. Type Ic is dated to a wide period, to — BC. Among the Kastanas jugs the ones found in Layers 2 and 3 dated to — BC have a spherical body similar to that of the Szajk jugs Hochstetter , —, pl.
In the seventh—sixth century BC they were oten placed in tumuli. In one of the graves a small oinochoe was found together with an Illyrian helmet Aliu Summarizing the above, the oino- choe type jugs were present in the Balkans from the Early Iron Age up to the ith—fourth centuries BC.
Current knowledge indicates that their presence north of the area of Macedonia and Albania is sporadic, and therefore these northern examples cannot be accurately dated.
Apart from some examples of the widespread types, the excavations at the Szajk produced handle decorations that mostly show local characteristics Fig.
Facing each other, two stylised, triangular animal-head decorations are positioned verti- cally near the upper end of the raised handle of the cups or bowls belonging to this group.
Only partial reconstruction of the associated vessel forms could be attempted since the surviving examples without exception are fragments of handle, occasionally with a small part of the body.
Some of the fragments suggest that they may have been attached to a cup with lattened body and strongly carinated shoulder.
All these handles are made of a ine fabric and are graphite painted. So this type seems to be a local form in Slavonia and eastern Srem in the Late Hallstatt period.
Decorated handles from the site diferent scales. Unfortunately, the form of the vessel cannot be determined, but it can be assumed that it belonged to a lat conic bowl.
Similar horn decorations have been found along the Danube in the northern part of Hungary. In grave 14 of the Sanski Most cemetery a type 3 horn-handled cup was found together with a Certosa ibula with animal head decoration Fiala , ig.
Several handle fragments decorated with lat discs at the top have come to light in Szajk. Cultural and Trade Connections of the Site of Szajk in South Transdanubia conic bowls, similar to those reconstructed on the basis of the analogous inds from Vinkovci and Stari Mikanovci Potrebica—Dizdar , pl.
According to the chronological system devised for the Romanian site, hemispherical bowls with disc-decorated handles were generally used as grave goods until Phase 4, or the sixth century BC Vulpe In general, the Type 5 handle decoration has the most widespread use in the Late Hallstatt Ferigile cultural group.
However, the geographical distance and the various other cultural groups between Szajk and the Ferigile area makes the direct connection between the two cultural entities doubtful at the moment.
Since the unpublished material in Baranya County from the Early Iron Age comprises numerous examples of the type, we can regard it as a local development.
Stamped bowls here are several examples of wheel-thrown bowls and urns with stamped decoration at Szajk. Bowls of this type are usually S-proiled, and have stamped motifs near the bottom on the inside.
Unfortunately, the majority of the Braubach bowls from Szajk are so fragmented that entire decorations are not possible to reconstruct Fig.
Braubach bowls from the site. Braubach bowls were deined and classiied more than half a century ago Dehn Au an der Leitha Nebehay , pl.
II can also be connected to the group. To the south of Hungary Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia the use of graphite seldom occurs.
East of the Danube instead of graphite painting burnished decorations are present among the inds from the sites of the Great Hungarian Plain from the second half of the sixth century BC, but they are deinitely rare Kemenczei , In some cases graphite painted decoration appears on the outside of larger vessels from Szajk as meander, linear, cross-hatched, and chessboard patterns but because many of the motifs survive only on sherds, we cannot securely link them to certain types of vessels.
In a few pits from Szajk early-type sherds with graphite tempering were found Fig. Regarding their form, they it into the types characteristic for the site, but their material is diferent.
Graphite tempered pots with thickened rim and vertically brushed belly are rare in Szajk. Since there are no natural graphite deposits anywhere near the Szajk settlement, it was imported, the most probable sources being those in Austria and the Czech Republic.
It is generally accepted that graphite ore itself was traded, and not inished graphite-tempered or graphite painted ware Rustoiu , ; Sievers , However, the fact that it is graphite- painted that can be a remnant of earlier traditions.
In addition, there are elements kantharoi, decorated handles, Certosa ibula whose characteristics point towards Slavonia, the Srem district, and towards Glasinac in Bosnia.
It is likely therefore that Szajk had strong cultural ties with these territories. Although the presence of the biconical decorated type 2 handles at Szajk indicates that the site had connections to the main Danubian trade route, the bowls with graphite painted decorations and the frequent use of graphite coating of ine ware link the settlement to the Eastern Alpine Hallstattkultur.
With no doubt kantharoi were locally made since they are present in the assemblages of almost all the excavated fea- tures. It is a more diicult question to evaluate the role of decorated handles.
Vessels having handles with triangular ending type 1 , or handles with disc decoration type 5 are likely to have been produced locally, since they were found is several objects, while other types with only one example are more prob- ably imported.
Additionally, the oinochoai were found in several of the excavation features which also implies a local origin. It is probable that migrant cratsmen or a family involved in pottery crat had a role in bringing in the technique and the oinochoe form.
Since several anthropological studies demonstrate that potters are mostly women in the traditional societies Knopf , , it is also possible that the pottery type appeared as one or more women moved to Szajk as a result of exogamy.
We can also suppose that the appearance and use of the oinochoe type at lest partially had its roots in local customs. As it has already been pointed out by others, Macedonia had a very important role in transferring Greek goods towards the north in the fourth—third centuries BC.
We cannot exclude the possibility that this trade route already existed in the sixth century BC. Apart from a few pos- sibly imported pieces, the local forms mostly comprising pots prevailed during the existence of the Szajk settlement.
However, the above described special wares may serve as markers in the chronology of the site. When considering the possible routes along which the imported wares arrived at Szajk, the role of rivers has to be emphasized.
Wheel-thrown types became generally used, like situlae, and pots with thick lip, bowls with S-proile. Since in this phase a uni- formity of forms can be observed on throughout Central European, the ind material is not of much help when trying to identify contact networks.
We can only suppose that the contacts towards the Slavonia Srem area were kept alive. It is diicult to distinguish the imported and locally produced wares in the ind material of the Szajk settlement complex.
However, based on a few pottery types with analogies in Slavonia, the Srem district, Bosnia, and Slovenia, it seems probable that the settlement had relations with these regions.
It is also likely that relations were maintained with the Eastern Alpine region either by migrat- ing cratsmen, or exogamy, or through market-places.
It is also noticeable that the routes along the riv- ers Danube, Drava, Sava, Vardar, and Morava had a signiicant role in the supposed contact network of the settlement.
Apart from a few types of pots, the pottery forms used at the site undergo a signiicant change in this phase. Such a drastic change in the types of pottery could be caused in the irst instance by the immigration of a new population, but also through the change in the local or broader economic trends and the change of the supply or the demand have to be considered Knopf , — Gradually, these ties became stronger both politically and economically.
Finally, with the inlux of goods migrants and settlers also appeared who mixed with the local population, thus forming new communities Rustoiu , — Neufeld an der Leitha, Ausztria Jerem , —, ig.
Zvonimirovo, Croatia Dizdar , pl. Stari Mikanovci, Croatia Potrebica—Dizdar , pl. Beremend, Hungary Jerem , ig. Szajk, Hungary Type 2 1.
Szob—Gregsen-kert, Hungary Ilon , pl. Tokod, Hungary Patek , pl. Szajk, Hungary Type 5 1. Vinkovci, Croatia Potrebica—Dizdar , T. Brukner Brukner, O.
Bujna—Romsauer Bujna, J. Dehn Dehn, W. Fekete Fekete, M. Fiala Fiala, F. Katalogi in monograije, Hochstetter Hochstetter, A.
Die handgemachte Keramik, PAS 3. Ilon Ilon, G. Symposium Steyr , Linz, — Akten des Internationalen Symposiums St. Kappel Kappel, I.
Kemenczei Kemenczei, T. Knopf Knopf, h. Sahranjivanje u bronzano i gvozdenog doba. Muzej Vojvodine posebna izdanja, 20, Novi Sad.
Nebehay Nebehay, S. Ancient Macedonia, 5, — Potrebica—Dizdar Potrebica, H. Prendi Prendi, F. Chr, PAS, 1, — Romsauer Romsauer, P.
Intercommunity communication strategies, IN: Rustoiu—Egri Rustoiu, A. Schwappach Schwappach, F. Sievers Sievers, S. Actes de la table ronde de Budapest 17—18 juin , Collection Bibracte, 12, 3, Glux-en- Glenne, 97— Tappert Tappert, C.
Vulpe Vulpe, A. Location of the site and some typical features. Distribution map of some handle type in the Carpathian Basin Type 1 —triangles; Type 2 — squares; Type 5 — circles see Appendix 2.
Examples for graphite painted decorations diferent scales. Distribution map of some handle types in the Carpathian Basin. Type 1 —triangles; Type 2 — squares; Type 5 — circles see Appendix 2.
Cultural and Trade Connections of the Site of Szajk in South Transdanubia 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 21 26 28 23 24 25 27 Plate 6.
Although this ield was extensively studied in the past, so far there have been only case studies from the Carpathian Basin. According to present knowledge, gold, copper and iron were extracted and processed in this region but some scholars assume that silver, tin, antimony and perhaps lead were also used.
Among the research methods utilized, the analytical methods employed are the most traditional ones. Although analytical methods have lead to some success, the geological background was nearly totally neglected.
A small change was required in the few years when samples had to be collected for the analysis of lead isotopes eg.
In the case of the semi-inished products of the Late Bronze Age and ideed the whole of the Bronze Age those types which have been identiied as the most important from the point of view of research Czajlik ; , but in the case of other metals and periods, we have only limited infor- mations e.
If one chose to focus on the decisive and direct evidence, one would have diiculties. A selection of some prehistoric mines, published many times but studied without their broader context, does not imply that there is detailed information as in the case of the Eastern Alps.
Traces of ore processing, blooming and smelting are more diicult to assess because we have only a few examples and many of them have been published with faulty excavation data.
We hope that the presentation of the problems will lead to the publication of new information and perhaps will also lead to a new initiative in research.
It is obvious that ore processing is based on available ore resources. Expedience and quantity were already key factors in the prehistory; therefore, one has to presume that highly metallic mineral Iron Age Crats and Cratsmen in the Carpathian Basin, , p.
Czajlik accumulations were present near the surface. Quantity itself is not crucial by all means, but it seems to be certain that the zones which might be regarded as localities of mineral signiicance are only suitable for short-term exploitation when other local features are adequate.
But in many recently published cases, the presence of iron slag has not indicated such activity, because the remains that appeared to indicate smelting proved to be traces of blacksmithing.
It is therefore impor- tant to distinguish clearly ores resulting from smelting and those which are the result of blacksmithing. One can mention here research in the Burgenland in the s by Barb who identiied the slag deposits there as Medieval and it was discovered in the s—80s that the area is one of the most important Celtic ironworking site in the Carpathian Basin Urban Among the inds from workshops there are pieces of charcoal close to or inside fragments of slag and this allows a precise dating despite the usual lack of artifacts.
It has to be remarked here that these sites usualy belong to mountain zones in the Carpathian Basin and our knowledge of the archaeological topography there is limited.
A very cautious analysis of the evidence must be followed by con- trolled excavations carried out by specialists.
It is not surprising that information from the Carpathian Basin is slim and that only cautious conclusions can be drawn from them.
Most of them refer to the activities in the Iron Age and they prove the smelting of iron. Information about the processing of gold and copper ores is uncertain and there is so far no evidence of other metals and alloys yet.
According to our present state of knowledge, the extracting of gold in prehistory was for a very long time limited to gold panning.
Unfortunately, gold panning leaves no archaeological traces and research of the workshops based on this kind of min- ing would seem to be rather diicult.
Not only the artiicial gullies, the results of ore extraction, and through excavation, even the workshops were found.
Although there is no reason to rule out that there were attempts at organized mining in the Bronze Age, due to the evidence of pottery inds in secondary position, substantive exploitation could only begin in the ith-fourth centuries BC.
As far as we know, the reconstruction of further technological steps and the identiication of workshops in Limousin has not yet been carried Cauuet b; We will not review here the copper smelting workshops of the Eastern Alps; our present study focuses on the sites situated on the western periphery of the Carpathian Basin.
At Ramsau also in Austria , three copper slag deposits can be dated as prehistoric through 14C dating and according to the topographical surveys of Klemm According to Rusu this seems to be a slag deposit similar to the examples from the Bronze Age of the Eastern Alps.
To be added is that there is also indirect evidence of prehistoric exploitation in this Carpathian zone. Although the Transylvanian ore mountains is known primarily from its gold mines, we also have to mention the archaeological information, which seem to be related to the processing of copper.
Despite the favourable conditions, there are just a few traces of prehistoric mining from a signiicant period of the Neolithic, according to the newest 14C dating — cal BC.
Evidence of roasting and smelting is not known from this area, but this is not surprising, because in this period it was common to use second- ary copper ores.
According to surface inds, they are to be dated to the Copper Age Boroffka Traces of roasting and smelting are not known from this area.
However, the presence of small pieces of limestone and small amounts of slag as well, without further study comprising analysis and excavation, does not clearly indicate such a chronologically early smelting activity.
Very early traces of blacksmithing have also been documented at Dolenjsko HaC , but the slag from a pit is — once more without analysis — again not clear evidence of the early ironworking.
But the pits that contained at least m3 of iron slag may be an indication that a special technology was used there, which did not require a furnace.
It is widely known that the earliest smelting practices were based on a technology without a furnace. Unfortunately, there is little reliable evidence though we may cite the settlement of Kestor in Devon Shepherd , , ig.
From the end of the second century BC we have a series of records for iron smelting in the Carpathian Basin. Traces of prehistoric smelting workshops in the Carpathian Basin.
Without systematic research in the Carpathian Basin, it seems to be impossible to list detailed and sound evidence as in the case of the Eastern Alps in order to prove the existence of prehistoric smelting workshops.
Barb Barb, A. Bielenin Bielenin, K. Studies in honour of Barbara S. Ottaway, UPA , Bonn, — Boroffka Boroka, N.
Cauuet a Cauuet, B. Cauuet b Cauuet, B. Cauuet Cauuet, B. Coghlan Coghlan, H. Czajlik Czajlik Czajlik, Z. Czajlik Czajlik, Z.
Ecsedy Ecsedy, I. Eibner Eibner, C. Ferenczi Ferenczi, I. Hampl Hampl, F. Klemm Klemm, S. Krause—Pernicka Krause, R.
Liversage Liversage, D. Miske Miske, K.